BPUPKI was first formed on March 1, 1945.
BPUPKI stands for the Indonesian Independence Preparatory Efforts Investigation Agency. The name BPUPKI in Japanese is referred to as Dokuritsu Junbi Chosakai. The BPUPKI institution was formed by the Japanese government. The formation of BPUPKI has mutually beneficial goals for Indonesia and Japan.
For Indonesia, the establishment of the BPUPKI to study and investigate anything related to the formation of an independent Indonesian state or regarding the governance of an independent Indonesia. As for Japan, the purpose of establishing the BPUPKI was to attract the sympathy of the Indonesian people to help Japan in its war against its allies by giving promises of independence to Indonesia.
BPUPKI was first formed on March 1, 1945. And it was disbanded on August 7, 1945 because its tasks had been completed. As long as BPUPKI was formed, BPUPKI officially held 2 sessions. The first trial was held on the steps of 29 May-1 June 1945. And the second session was held on 10 July-17 July 1945. BPUPKI has 67 members, consisting of 60 Indonesians and 7 Japanese who are in charge of supervising. The chairperson is Radjiman Wedyodiningrat and the vice chairman of Hibangase Yosio (Japan) and Soeroso.
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Results of the First BPUPKI Session
The first session of BPUPKI was held on 29 May – 1 June 1945. The first session of BPUPKI discussed the basic formulation of the Republic of Indonesia. In order to get the basic formulation of the Republic of Indonesia right, the agenda was to listen to the speeches of the three main figures of the Indonesian national movement during the first session of the BPUPKI. The three of them also conveyed their ideas about the basis of the Republic of Indonesia.
Session on May 29, 1945, Prof. Mohammad Yamin, SH, put forward the idea of the formulation of the five basic principles of the Republic of Indonesia, namely:
- Fairy Nationality
- Humanity Fairy
- Fairy Godhead
- The Folk Fairy
- People welfare
Session on May 31, 1945, Prof. Dr. Soepomo put forward his ideas regarding the formulation of the five basic principles of the Republic of Indonesia, which were called “The Basic of the Independent Indonesian State”, namely:
- Inner and outer balance
- Social justice
Session on June 1, 1945, Ir. Soekarno put forward the idea of formulating the five basic principles of the Republic of Indonesia, which was called “Pancasila”, namely:
- Indonesian nationality
- Internationalism and Humanity
- Consensus or Democracy
- Social welfare
- Belief in the one and only God
From several suggestions, owned by Ir. Soekarno was the one who was accepted and given the name Pancasila. This formula is then used as the foundation and ideology of the Indonesian state.
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The period between the first official session and the second official session
Even though the first session of BPUPKI has ended, it has yet to find a bright spot regarding the basis of the Republic of Indonesia. So that the Committee of Nine was re-formed. The aim is to ensure and get decisions from previous ideas regarding the basic formulation of the Republic of Indonesia.
The membership composition of the “Committee of Nine” is as follows:
- Ir. Soekarno (chairman)
- Drs. Mohammad Hatta (deputy chairman)
- Mr. Raden Achmad Soebardjo Djojoadisoerjo (Member)
- Mr. Prof. Mohamman Yamin, SH (Member)
- Kiai Haji Abdul Wahid Hasjim (Member)
- Abdoel Kahar Moezakir (Member)
- Raden Abikusno Tjokrosoejoso (Member)
- Haji Agus Salim (Member)
- Mr. Alexander Andries Maramis (Member)
After conducting various long negotiations, on June 22, 1945 the “Nine Committee” met again and produced the basic formulation of the Republic of Indonesia which became known as the Jakarta Charter.
In the Jakarta Charter, the basis of the Republic of Indonesia is:
- Deity with the obligation to carry out Islamic Sharia for its adherents
- Just and civilized humanity
the unity of Indonesia
- Population led by wisdom of wisdom in representative deliberations
- Social justice for all the people of Indonesia
The draft was accepted for further maturity during the second BPUPKI trial period, which was held starting July 10, 1945.
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Results of the Second Session of BPUPKI
The second session of BPUPKI was held from July 10, 1945 to July 17, 1945. The results of the second BPUPKI session were discussions on the draft constitution (UUD), the form of the state, the statement of independence, the territory of the country and Indonesian citizenship.
In this meeting a committee for drafting a constitution (UUD) was formed with 19 members, chaired by Ir. Soekarno. In addition, a homeland defense committee was also formed chaired by Abikoesno Tjokrosoejoso and an economic and financial committee chaired by Mohammad Hatta. On July 11, 1945, the UUD drafting committee again formed a small committee consisting of 7 members composed